September 10th, 2016

Samsung Brings Forth The Champion In The Form Of Samsung C3303 Champ

Samsung Brings Forth the Champion in the Form of Samsung C3303 Champ

by

Monty Alexander

Samsung, a well known brand in the field of home appliances, is now also being recognized as one of the best mobile manufacturing companies in India. By setting its feet firm now, Samsung brings forth the champion in the form of Samsung C3303 Champ.

Samsung C3303 Champ is a touch screen phone being available at a very affordable price range. Possessing a touch screen mobile phone is much in vogue these days; hence, people who want to have a touch screen mobile phone can select the Samsung C3303 Champ. These mobile phones are also available in the online shops from where people can buy them easily. The additional benefit of shopping through the online shops is that, one can know the complete specification from there and in fact, also compare the features and price of the similar mobiles. Though this can be done at any other shop which sells mobiles, but the online shops can be explored without any wastage of time. Therefore, when time is not available, the online shops make it possible for the people to do the shopping.

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Coming back to the features of the Samsung champ, let us focus on the key features of this Samsung mobile phone. Apart from being a stylish touch screen mobile phone, the Samsung champ mobile also has the MP3 player, which is an indispensible feature for any mobile. MP3 players in a mobile phone make it possible for the people to listen and play songs anytime they wish. This feature is mostly liked by the young people. In addition to this, the Samsung C3303 Champ mobile phone has a 1.3 megapixel camera with which one can click some very beautiful pictures and make some excellent video clips of friends and family members. This way, this Samsung mobile phone can add a lot of fun and excitement to the lives of people.

Owing to the availability of the above mentioned features, the Samsung C3303 Champ mobile phone is being welcomed whole heartedly by the mobile lovers. But what makes a real champion is the price of the Samsung mobile phone. At such an affordable price range, it is really tough to find another match for the Samsung C3303 Champ mobile and hence, most people believe that this Samsung mobile phone is a champion.

Monty Alexander is a well known author and has written articles on Digital Camera,

Samsung Corby TXT B3210

, Gifts store, Jewellery, Camera Batteries, Watches for Men,

Samsung C3303 Champ

, online shop and many other subjects.

Article Source:

ArticleRich.com

March 16th, 2016

Tamil Nadu Elections: DMK, AIADMK promise freebies

Thursday, March 24, 2011 

Both the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) parties have announce “freebies” as part of their election manifestos in the lead-up to the vote in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Freebies have been a success from the 2006 Tamil Nadu elections when DMK lured voters by announcing free colour televisions to households. That triumph led the major opposition AIADMK to announce similar freebies in their manifesto published Thursday.

DMK has announced free laptops to college students, kitchen appliances and modern networks to rural regions. The AIADMK, publishing their manifesto later, expanded on each of the promises of the DMK, plus offering 4g gold mangalsutra for the poor, monetary help for rural households and fishermen, free rice, and more.

AIADMK manifesto addresses larger issues, such as taking on the near-monopoly of the cable industry television industry, starting new Power generation plants to address power shortages in recent years.

March 13th, 2016

Wikipedia victim of onslaught of April Fool’s jokes

Friday, April 1, 2005 

Today Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia that anyone with access to the Internet can edit, was the victim of an onslaught of practical jokes, as April Fool’s Day kicked in various timezones around the world, at least those parts which follow the Gregorian calendar. It is believed that Wikipedia contributors were kept busy tidying up and removing prank articles and changes made by other Wikipedia contributors, and were expecting to be cleaning up the aftermath for days afterwards.

The most highly visible prank was the 2005 Britannica takeover of Wikimedia encyclopaedia article. Other pranks included:

Most edits which were judged (rightly or wrongly) as April Fool’s Day pranks were quickly undone, although tacit community consensus left several to stand throughout the whole period of April Fool’s Day. Being accessible worldwide (by people who can afford Internet access) in all timezones, April Fool’s Day lasts for more than 24 hours at Wikipedia. The change to the deletion notice was undone within 31 minutes, for example, despite the notice being altered at 05:08 UTC, night-time in Europe and the United States.

Several Wikipedia contributors have expressed their dismay at the amount of work being generated, though these views may or may not be indicitive of the contributor base at large:

Other Wikipedians have shown dismay at how quickly the April Fools gags are undone:

July 18th, 2015

Tips On How To Get Rid Of Lice

Read More About:

By Gracie Roloff

Having lice is a common problem especially when your kids acquire them. There are different types of lice and the most common is head lice. Getting rid of these head lice is not that easy as you may think because they produced hundreds of eggs every day. Having head lice would never be good for our child’s health and their increasing population in their head should be removed right away. The other types of lice that infest the human are the pubic lice and the body lice, but they are less common than the head lice. There are certain ways to get rid of them and one must follow and do them regularly to prevent re-occurrence of head lice. Be aware that using particular nit comb to remove them is not enough because there are thousands of eggs that stay in the scalp so might as well use other alternatives that are more effective.

Here are some of the ways to get rid of head lice:

Mayonnaise

Get a handful of mayonnaise in your kitchen and cover your child’s head with it. Add some more to make sure all areas are covered. Spread it behind the ears and down the neck because their eggs are also staying there. Leave the hair for two hours and wash it with water and shampoo.

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Vinegar

After taking a regular shower, wash your child’s hair and scalp with vinegar. This will help loosen the lice eggs. Then rinse your child’s hair with hot water, make sure that its temperature is tolerable to prevent burn.

Natural Lice Spray or Shampoo

These products can greatly help you get rid of lice but caution is observed when using them because they are poisonous. Do not let your child spray or use them on their own.

Proper Washing of Clothes, Hats and Beddings

Regular washing of clothes and beddings is not a guarantee that you already eliminate all the lice and eggs. Head lice and other kinds of lice are vulnerable to severe instability of temperature. So the best way to kill them is by using heat. You can have hot water to wash your hair and dry them using a hair dryer after every bath.

What you’re going to find is that many people have a problem with lice, and while you will more than likely have to shave your head to get rid of the problem for the time being, you’re going to want to make sure that you prevent it in the future.

What you’re going to want to do is make sure that you talk with your Doctor, as well as ask someone at a salon on what they recommend for the issue. You will find that there are many shampoos out there that can help ease the problem. You’re going to want to make sure that you continue to do the process, as you will want to be sure that you’re preventing things such as this so that it never comes back again. By doing so, you can kiss lice goodbye!

About the Author: Want more tips on

how to get rid of lice

? Find out what other people are doing at MyGetRidofGuide.

Source:

isnare.com

Permanent Link:

isnare.com/?aid=749886&ca=Medicines+and+Remedies

July 18th, 2015

Muslim hair stylist sues hairdresser over alleged discrimination

Friday, November 9, 2007 

British-born Muslim hair stylist Bushra Noah is currently undertaking legal action against the owner of a hair salon for alleged religious discrimination. Noah is suing London hair salon owner Sarah Desroiser. Desroiser who runs a salon in King’s Cross, has said that she would not accept Noah as a stylist if Noah’s hair was covered. Noah, like many devout Muslims keeps her hair covered in public places, believing it to be immodest otherwise.

Noah claims that her headscarf is a fundamental part of her religious beliefs and that wearing the scarf would not interfere in her carrying out the job at all. Desrosiers said that it is not discrimination but rather that “the essence of my line of work is the display of hair. To me, it’s absolutely basic that people should be able to see the stylist’s hair. It has nothing to do with religion. It is just unfortunate that for her covering her hair symbolises religion.” Desosiers added that she had worked with Muslims in the past and employs a Muslim accountant.

Noah claims that the state of her own hair is irrelevant to her ability to style others hair.

The last few years have seen a string of similar cases in Britain. Last year, there was a case over whether a British Airways employee could wear a prominent cross, and another case in which a teacher argued that she had a right to wear a Jilb?b (a traditional Islamic dress that covers almost the entire body) in the classroom. In that case, the teacher lost in the High Court.

June 19th, 2015

Choosing Among Stand Alone Vs Hosted Shopping Cart

Choosing Among Stand Alone Vs Hosted Shopping Cart

by

Amelia Brooke

Starting your own online store or shopping cart is not at all a difficult business proposition by technical terms. Once you have the merchandise to sell, then the platform and every other associated requirement can be made available with the help of a shopping cart software. You can easily create an ecommerce website to sell almost anything by these software. Today there are a number of such software applications available that provide you with detailed instructions and customization tools to develop the most suitable shopping cart website for your online retail business. Mainly there are two choices. One is a standalone shopping cart software and the other is

hosted shopping cart

software. Both are meant for the same purpose i.e. helping you with creating an ecommerce website easily. The difference between the two is that in a hosted shopping cart software, the website you develop would be hosted on the server of the software provider whereas in standalone shopping cart software, you have to host the website on your own servers or on rented server space elsewhere.

The question that probably arises here is to determine how to choose between these two. Well it really depends on how well equipped and technically sound your business is as well as the financial propaganda of your business. If you are a start up business stepping into the world of online selling it is best advised for you to select a hosted shopping cart software. The advantages are many as described below:

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You don t have to know the complexities of hosting and server space issues. The software provider would offer you with all these services along with the software but for a price that is higher than a standalone software for shopping.

You do not have to build or set up an infrastructure for hosting your eCommerce website and you do not have to recruit staff to maintain your infrastructure as well.

There is no need to worry about network issues such as bandwidth, speed, server bottlenecks, etc as you only need to choose a

shopping cart software

from a reputed developer who would have reliable infrastructure to support your hosting needs as well.

When you take into consideration, the infrastructure costs you would have to spend on setting up a hosting environment for your website, the staff salary for the infrastructure, periodic maintenance and repair costs, time and effort, etc the high price you pay for initially for a hosted shopping cart software and the small hosting fee you pay every month or on a yearly basis to the developer can be justified easily.

In short for an online store that is stepping out of its cocoon, a hosted shopping cart software is the best option because the owner of the store can relax and concentrate on more important issues of his business rather than being bothered by complex technical issues pertaining to web hosting and server maintenance. On the other hand if you have enough technical expertise and enough infrastructural as well as manpower support and considerable financial assets, then a standalone shopping cart software might just prove enough for you to maintain an online store.

Amelia is having vast knowledge in various trends and techniques in internet world. Know more about various

open source shopping cart software

Article Source:

ArticleRich.com

June 18th, 2015

USPTO partially confirms validity of Amazon “1-click patent”

Tuesday, October 9, 2007 

Today, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) issued an office action, which confirmed the patentability of claims 6 to 10 of the Amazon 1-Click patent, US 5,960,411. The patent examiner, however, rejected claims 1 to 5 and 11 to 15. Amazon now has up to six months to amend the rejected claims to overcome the examiner’s rejection, provide arguments to demonstrate that the examiner is in error and/or provide evidence to demonstrate the patentability of their claims. During this period, the entire patent is still considered valid under US patent law.

The USPTO is reconsidering the patentability of the claims due to a request for reexamination filed by New Zealander Peter Calveley. Mr. Calveley used internet archives to show that defunct company Digi Cash used a similar technique prior to Amazon. Despite costing a substantial sum of cash and requiring donations to prepare and file the request for reexamination, Calveley said he did it as a game and hopes that his success inspires others to play the same game.

“One Click” shopping is an ecommerce technique, which allows a customer to purchase products via the Internet without repeatedly entering personal information such as name and address. At the time it was introduced it eased the frustration of on-line shopping.

Amazon filed the patent application for 1-click shopping in early 1997 and was granted the patent in September 1999. 23 days later Amazon sued rival Barnes & Noble for alleged infringement by its “Express Lane” ordering which was introduced in 1998. In December 1999 Amazon won an interim injunction against Barnes & Noble but the USA Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit lifted this injunction in February 2001. The parties then settled their dispute for undisclosed terms. Amazon has since successfully licensed the technique to other e-sellers such as Apple.

March 28th, 2015

Defining A Sense Of Place

Defining a Sense of Place

by

David Ostendarp

Its been a long time since sports franchises were on the periphery of civic life. Remember those tightly organized, but sweetly informal, bands of athletes and executives who gathered in the gloaming and gave their all for the love of the game? Franchises of that era were vitally important to a committed segment of the populace the fans but strictly atmospheric to metro movers and shakers, politicos and patrons, moms and management-types.

Not now. Today, sports franchises are big chips in the high-stakes holdem tournament of city development. Sports franchises have joined the gotta-have list with green space, magnet schools, public transit and museum districts in determining a communitys livability. As they compete for immigration, relocations and adoration, cities around the world wear sports franchises like jeweled crowns. Sure, a city might win a new Toyota plant with tax increment financing and bond issues, but will that get the worlds attention on ESPN?

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And, of course, stadia are the most visible, most durable evidence of this phenomenon. Architects, developers and exhibit designers scramble to secure the swoopiest sight lines, the sexiest light-towers, the most digitally dexterous scoreboards. New stadia are reviewed like arts centers, and the reviews might not even appear on the sports page. Stadia and, in the larger sense, sports franchises, have transcended their class. Perhaps only visually, in most cases certainly just seasonally, they have nonetheless become something more.

The best of them are gathering places beyond home and work, distinctive, informal settings where people can meet to relax, nourish relationships and be sociable instead of isolated. Impressive works of architecture, they are vast cities of interconnected halls and passageways, ramps and concourses. But they can be yet more than that a kind of spiritual intersection for a broad spectrum of society, where you can become immersed in the ebb and flow of humanity. They are social centers, too, not clubs for the privileged few, but buildings for everyone. All touch and are touched by them. Such places contribute greatly to creating a sense of community.

Yet this does not happen inevitably or without careful planning and attraction design. It is not simply a matter of dedicating a high-profile site, pouring enough concrete, navigating the many turf options, and throwing open the doors. To succeed in creating a sense of community, sports franchises/stadia must first create a sense of place.

The romantic auras of some stadia are direct byproducts of their histories. Lambeau Field, Wembley, Churchill Downs, Aztec Stadium, Fenway Park, the Melbourne Cricket Ground, Nrburgring (though none measures up to Romes Circus Maximus, longer than six modern football fields and more than three times as wide, with its chariot races, wild beasts and 350,000 spectators).

These are sports great edifices and, like certain campuses, clock towers and train stations, they positively exhale place. And why not? They were emanating a powerful sense of place long before the phrase was ever coined. Of course, thats not to say that the place they exhale cant be enhanced (more on that later).

But most sports franchises dont have the advantage of built-in heritage. Not everyones been around since the dawn of sport. And even if they have, theyve doubtless moved into new digs a few times. The old stadia come tumbling down; owners cite neighborhood decay, absence of corporate boxes, fan flight to the suburbs. And in their places come the new sports temples. No complaints about their comfort padded seats and cupholders their convenience subterranean parking, plenty of toilets or their construction love that brick, those awnings, the civic consciousness of it all. But all are challenged to create their own sense of place.

Any sports fan can tell you that place is a combination of many things, some ephemeral and/or beyond our control weather, proximity of a lake or river, pre and post-game hangouts and traditions. But smart planning and attraction design can take advantage of things like these a sundeck, a notch or two in the stadium walls to provide glimpses of light on the water beyond, locating in a real neighborhood not some ersatz approximation. Todays leading stadium architects and developers are astute at recognizing and capitalizing on these opportunities.

But like a great film or an unforgettable vacation, the atmosphere surrounding a stadium or the franchise it houses is the subtle sum of countless cohesions and synchronicities. Color, form, shadow and light. Playing field meets public spaces. Nothing is out of place. Nothing is lacking; nor is anything too much. The details are pleasing, the overall impression is perfection.

Bob Harness of Jack Rouse & Associates is the author of this article about defining place in the world of sports. This article goes into the details of how

attraction design

and

exhibit designers

impact the sporting experience.

Article Source:

Defining a Sense of Place

March 28th, 2015

Mumbai officials demolish 39K shanties; 200K homeless

December 25, 2004

Officials in Mumbai, India, demolished over 6,000 shanties today in a push to eradicate the capital city’s slums. In total, 39,000 shanties have been flattened, displacing over 200,000 people, in the city’s biggest-ever demolition drive, which began in early December.

When complete, over 2 million people are expected to be displaced. After wiping out the least desirable shanties, next in line for demolition are the illegal ‘well-off’ shanties and neighborhoods, according to the legal and bureaucratic motions that have been executed toward cleaning up Mumbai’s appearance by lowering the dominance of shanties, which make up 62 percent of Mumbai’s housing.

“As far as eye can see, there are mounds of wood, tin and tarpaulin, the remains of 6,200 illegal homes, flattened by a heavy excavator running on tank-like tracks and giant motorised claws,” the Indian Express reported about today’s destruction. [1]

Chief Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh said that citizens would see a change within six months. “Every chief minister likes to be remembered, and I’m no exception,” said Deshmukh, who despite having an empty exchequer, also announced that Rs 31,000 crore will be spent on new roads, sea links and rail lines. [2]

March 28th, 2015

Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the States of New York and New Jersey and authorized by the US Congress, established in 1921 through an interstate compact, that oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the Port of New York and New Jersey. This 1,500 square mile (3,900 km²) port district is generally within a 25 mile(40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument.[1] The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center.

The Port Authority operates the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, which handled the third-largest volume of shipping among all ports in the United States in 2004 and the largest on the Eastern Seaboard.[2] The Port Authority also operates Hudson River crossings, including the Holland Tunnel, Lincoln Tunnel, and George Washington Bridge connecting New Jersey with Manhattan, and three crossings that connect New Jersey with Staten Island. The Port Authority Bus Terminal and the PATH rail system are also run by the Port Authority, as well as LaGuardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, Teterboro Airport, Stewart International Airport and Atlantic City International Airport. The agency has its own 1,600-member Port Authority Police Department.[3]

Although the Port Authority manages much of the transportation infrastructure in the area, most bridges, tunnels, and other transportation facilities are not included. The New York City Department of Transportation is responsible for the Staten Island Ferry and for the majority of bridges in the city. The Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority is responsible for other bridges and tunnels in the area. New York City Transit Authority buses and subways, Metro North and Long Island Rail Road (all four are divisions of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority), and buses, commuter rail, and light rail operated by New Jersey Transit are also independent of PANYNJ.

The Port of New York and New Jersey comprised the main point of embarkation for U.S. troops and supplies sent to Europe during World War I, via the New York Port of Embarkation. The congestion at the port led experts to realize the need for a port authority to supervise the extremely complex system of bridges, highways, subways, and port facilities in the New York-New Jersey area. The solution was the 1921 creation of the Port Authority under the supervision of the governors of the two states. By issuing its own bonds, it was financially independent of either state; the bonds were paid off from tolls and fees, not from taxes. It became one of the major agencies of the metropolitan area for large-scale projects, especially while Robert Moses was director.[4]

In the early years of the 20th century, there were disputes between the states of New Jersey and New York over rail freights and boundaries. At the time, rail lines terminated on the New Jersey side of the harbor, while ocean shipping was centered on Manhattan and Brooklyn. Freight had to be shipped across the Hudson River in barges.[5] In 1916, New Jersey launched a lawsuit against New York over issues of rail freight, with the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) issuing an order that the two states work together, subordinating their own interests to the public interest.[6] The Harbor Development Commission, a joint advisory board set-up in 1917, recommended that a bi-state authority be established to oversee efficient economic development of the port district.[7] The Port of New York Authority was established on April 30, 1921,[8] through an interstate compact between the states of New Jersey and New York. This was the first such agency in the United States, created under a provision in the Constitution of the United States permitting interstate compacts.[1][9] The idea for the Port Authority was conceived during the Progressive Era, which aimed at the reduction of political corruption and at increasing the efficiency of government. With the Port Authority at a distance from political pressures, it was able to carry longer-term infrastructure projects irrespective of the election cycles and in a more efficient manner.[10] In 1972 it was renamed the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to better reflect its status as a partnership between the two states.[8]

Throughout its history, there have been concerns about democratic accountability, or lack thereof at the Port Authority.[10] The Port District is irregularly shaped but comprises a 1,500-square-mile (3,900 km2) area roughly within a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty.

At the beginning of the 20th century, there were no road bridge or tunnel crossings between the two states. The initial tunnel crossings were completed privately by the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad in 1908 and 1909 (“Hudson Tubes”), followed by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1910 (“North River Tunnels”). Under an independent agency, the Holland Tunnel was opened in 1927, with some planning and construction pre-dating the Port Authority. With the rise in automobile traffic, there was demand for more Hudson River crossings. Using its ability to issue bonds and collect revenue, the Port Authority has built and managed major infrastructure projects. Early projects included bridges across the Arthur Kill, which separates Staten Island from New Jersey.[8] The Goethals Bridge, named after chief engineer of the Panama Canal Commission General George Washington Goethals, connected Elizabeth, New Jersey and Howland Hook, Staten Island. At the south end of Arthur Kill, the Outerbridge Crossing was built and named after the Port Authority’s first chairman, Eugenius Harvey Outerbridge.[11] Construction of both bridges was completed in 1928. The Bayonne Bridge, opened in 1931, was built across the Kill van Kull, connecting Staten Island with Bayonne, New Jersey.[12]

Construction began in 1927 on the George Washington Bridge, linking the northern part of Manhattan with Fort Lee, New Jersey, with Port Authority chief engineer, Othmar Ammann, overseeing the project.[8] The bridge was completed in October 1931, ahead of schedule and well under the estimated costs. This efficiency exhibited by the Port Authority impressed President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who used this as a model in creating the Tennessee Valley Authority and other such entities.[10]

In 1930, the Holland Tunnel was placed under control of the Port Authority, providing significant toll revenues to the Port Authority.[12] During the late 1930s and early 1940s, the Lincoln Tunnel was built, connecting New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan.

In 1962, the bankrupt Hudson & Manhattan RR was absorbed by the Port Authority, the Hudson Tubes restyled PATH (Port Authority Trans-Hudson) and H&M RR Building site (Hudson Terminal) razed for the future World Trade Center.

In 1942, Austin J. Tobin became the Executive Director of the Port Authority. In the post-World War II period, the Port Authority expanded its operations to include airports, and marine terminals, with projects including Newark Liberty International Airport and Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminals. Meanwhile, the city-owned La Guardia Field, was nearing capacity in 1939, and needed expensive upgrades and expansion. At the time, airports were operated as loss leaders, and the city was having difficulties maintaining the status quo, losing money and not able to undertake needed expansions.[13] The city was looking to hand the airports over to a public authority, possibly to Robert Moses’ Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. After long negotiations with the City of New York, a 50-year lease, commencing on May 31, 1947, went to the Port Authority of New York to rehabilitate, develop, and operate La Guardia Airport (La Guardia Field), John F. Kennedy International Airport (Idlewild Airport), and Floyd Bennett Field.[8][14] The Port Authority transformed the airports into fee-generating facilities, adding stores and restaurants.[13]

David Rockefeller, president of Chase Manhattan Bank, who envisioned a World Trade Center for lower Manhattan, realizing he needed public funding in order to construct the massive project, approached Tobin. Although many questioned the Port Authority’s entry into the real estate market, Tobin saw the project as a way to enhance the agency’s power and prestige, and agreed to the project. The Port Authority was the overseer of the World Trade Center, hiring the architect Minoru Yamasaki and engineer Leslie Robertson.

Yamasaki ultimately settled on the idea of twin towers. To meet the Port Authority’s requirement to build 10 million square feet (930,000 m²) of office space, the towers would each be 110-stories tall. The size of the project raised ire from the owner of the Empire State Building, which would lose its title of tallest building in the world.[12] Other critics objected to the idea of this much “subsidized” office space going on the open market, competing with the private sector. Others questioned the cost of the project, which in 1966 had risen to $575 million.[12] Final negotiations between The City of New York and the Port Authority centered on tax issues. A final agreement was made that the Port Authority would make annual payments in lieu of taxes, for the 40% of the World Trade Center leased to private tenants. The remaining space was to be occupied by state and federal government agencies. In 1962, the Port Authority had signed up the United States Customs Service as a tenant, and in 1964 they inked a deal with the State of New York to locate government offices at the World Trade Center.[citation needed]

In August 1968, construction on the World Trade Center’s north tower started, with construction on the south tower beginning in January 1969.[15] When the World Trade Center twin towers were completed, the total costs to the Port Authority had reached $900 million.[16] The buildings were dedicated on April 4, 1973, with Tobin, who had retired the year before, absent from the ceremonies.[17]

In 1986, Port Authority sold rights to the World Trade Center name for $10 to an organization run by an outgoing executive, Guy F. Tozzoli. He in turn made millions of dollars selling the use of the name in up to 28 different states.[18]

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent collapse of the World Trade Center buildings impacted the Port Authority. With the Port Authority’s headquarters located in 1 World Trade Center, it became deprived of a base of operations and sustained a great number of casualties. An estimated 1,400 Port Authority employees worked in the World Trade Center.[19] The Port Authority lost a total of 84 employees, including 37 Port Authority police officers, its Executive Director, Neil D. Levin, and police superintendent, Fred V. Morrone.[20] In rescue efforts following the collapse, two Port Authority police officers, John McLoughlin and Will Jimeno, were pulled out alive after spending nearly 24 hours beneath 30 feet (9.1 m) of rubble.[21][22] Their rescue was later portrayed in the Oliver Stone film World Trade Center.

The Fort Lee lane closure scandal is a U.S. political scandal that concerns New Jersey Governor Chris Christie’s staff and his Port Authority political appointees conspiring to create a traffic jam in Fort Lee, New Jersey as political retribution, and their attempts to cover up these actions and suppress internal and public disclosures.

Dedicated toll lanes for one of the Fort Lee entrances (used by local traffic from Fort Lee and surrounding communities) to the upper level on the George Washington Bridge, which connects to Manhattan, New York, were reduced from three to one from September 9–13, 2013. The toll lane closures caused massive Fort Lee traffic back-ups, which affected public safety due to extensive delays by police and emergency service providers and disrupted schools due to the delayed arrivals of students and teachers. Two Port Authority officials (who were appointed by Christie and would later resign) claimed that reallocating two of the toll lanes from the local Fort Lee entrance to the major highways was due to a traffic study evaluating “traffic safety patterns” at the bridge, but the Executive Director of the Port Authority was unaware of a traffic study.[23][24][25]

As of March 2014, the repercussions and controversy surrounding these actions continue to be under investigation by the Port Authority, federal prosecutors, and a New Jersey legislature committee.

The Port Authority’s chairman, David Samson, who was appointed by Governor Christie, resigned on March 28, 2014 amid allegations of his involvement in the scandal and other controversies.[26]

The Port Authority is jointly controlled by the governors of New York and New Jersey, who appoint the members of the agency’s Board of Commissioners and retain the right to veto the actions of the Commissioners from his or her own state. [27] Each governor appoints six members to the Board of Commissioners, who are subject to state senate confirmation and serve overlapping six-year terms without pay.[1] An Executive Director is appointed by the Board of Commissioners to deal with day-to-day operations and to execute the Port Authority’s policies. Under an informal power-sharing agreement, the Governor of New Jersey chooses the chairman of the board and the deputy executive director, while the Governor of New York selects the vice-chairman and Executive Director. [28][29]

As of March 2014, the appointed commissioners are as follows:[30]

Meetings of the Board of Commissioners are public. Members of the public may address the Board at these meetings, subject to a prior registration process via email.[32] Public records of the Port Authority may be requested via the Office of the Secretary according to an internal Freedom of Information policy which is intended to be consistent with and similar to the state Freedom of Information policies of both New York and New Jersey.[33]

Members of the Board of Commissioners are typically business titans and political power brokers who maintain close relationships with their respective Governors. On February 3, 2011, Former New Jersey Attorney General David Samson was named new chairman of the Port Authority.[34]

Financially, the Port Authority has no power to tax and does not receive tax money from any local or state governments. Instead, it operates on the revenues it makes from its rents, tolls, fees, and facilities.[35]

Patrick J. Foye became Executive Director on November 1, 2011. Prior to joining the Port Authority, he served as Deputy Secretary for Economic Development for Governor Andrew M. Cuomo.[36]

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey manages and maintains infrastructure critical to the New York/New Jersey region’s trade and transportation network—five of the region’s airports, the New York/New Jersey seaport, the PATH rail transit system, six tunnels and bridges between New York and New Jersey, the Port Authority Bus Terminal and George Washington Bridge Bus Station in Manhattan and The World Trade Center site.[41]

The Port of New York and New Jersey is the largest port complex on the East Coast of North America and is located at the hub of the most concentrated and affluent consumer market in the world, with immediate access to the most extensive interstate highway and rail networks in the region. In addition, The Port Authority directly oversees the operation of seven cargo terminals in the New York–New Jersey region. Each terminal offers comprehensive shipping services, rail and trucking services.

The Port Authority operates the following seaports:[41]

The Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal was the first in the nation to containerize,[42] As of 2004, Port Authority seaports handle the third largest amount of shipping of all U.S. ports, as measured in tonnage.[2]

ExpressRaill is rail network supporting intermodal freight transport at the major container terminals including dockside trackage and railyards for transloading Various switching and terminal railroads, including the Conrail Shared Assets Operations (CRCX) on the Chemical Coast Secondary connect to the East Coast rail freight network carriers Norfolk Southern (NS), CSX Transportation (CSX), and Canadian Pacific (CP).[43][44] In the year period ending October 2014 the total amount of TEUS of Intermodal containers handled at the port included 391,596 rail lifts.[45] As of 2014, three ExpressRail systems (Elizabeth, Newark, Staten Island) were in operation with the construction of a fourth at Port Jersey underway.

New York New Jersey Rail, LLC (NYNJ) is a switching and terminal railroad operates a car float operation across Upper New York Bay between the Greenville Yard in Jersey City and Brooklyn.

The Port Authority operates the following airports:[41]

Both Kennedy and LaGuardia airports are owned by the City of New York and leased to the Port Authority for operating purposes. Newark Liberty is owned by the City of Newark and also leased to the Authority. In 2007, Stewart International Airport, owned by the State of New York, was leased to the Port Authority. The Port Authority officially took over select management functions of the Atlantic City International Airport on July 1, 2013, in conjunction with the South Jersey Transportation Authority, which leases the airport site from the FAA.[46][47]

JFK, LaGuardia, and Newark Liberty as a whole form the largest airport system in the United States, second in the world in terms of passenger traffic, and first in the world by total flight operations, with JFK being the 19th busiest in the world and the 6th busiest in the US. Unfortunately, the three airports also share the dubious distinction of being consistently rated as some of the worst in the US and even the world. Frommer’s recently picked JFK’s Terminal 3 as the worst airport terminal in the world.

The Authority operates the Downtown Manhattan Heliport (Manhattan, New York).[41]

Other facilities managed by the Port Authority include the George Washington Bridge, the Lincoln Tunnel, and the Holland Tunnel, which all connect Manhattan and Northern New Jersey; the Goethals Bridge, the Bayonne Bridge, and the Outerbridge Crossing which connect Staten Island and New Jersey.[41]

The Port Authority operates the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) rapid transit system linking lower and midtown Manhattan with New Jersey, the AirTrain Newark system linking Newark International Airport with New Jersey Transit and Amtrak via a station on the Northeast Corridor rail line, and the AirTrain JFK system linking JFK with Howard Beach (Subway) and Jamaica (Subway and Long Island Rail Road).[41]

Major bus depots include the Port Authority Bus Terminal at 42nd Street, the George Washington Bridge Bus Station, and the Journal Square Transportation Center in Jersey City.[41]

The Port Authority also participates in joint development ventures around the region, including The Teleport business park on Staten Island, Bathgate Industrial Park in The Bronx, the Essex County Resource Recovery Facility, Newark Legal Center, Queens West in Long Island City, NY, and The South Waterfront in Hoboken.[41]

Major projects by the Port Authority include the One World Trade Center and other construction at the World Trade Center site. Other projects include a new passenger terminal at JFK International Airport, and redevelopment of Newark Liberty International Airport’s Terminal B, and replacement of the Goethals Bridge.[48] The Port Authority also has plans to buy 340 new PATH cars and begin major expansion of Stewart International Airport.[48]

As owner of the World Trade Center site, the Port Authority has worked since 2001 on plans for reconstruction of the site, along with Silverstein Properties, and the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. In 2006, the Port Authority reached a deal with Larry Silverstein, which ceded control of One World Trade Center to the Port Authority.[49] The deal gave Silverstein rights to build three towers along the eastern side of the site, including 150 Greenwich Street, 175 Greenwich Street, and 200 Greenwich Street.[49] Also part of the plans is the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, which will replace the temporary PATH station that opened in November 2003.

The Port Authority has its own police department that provides police services to the Port Authority. The department currently employs approximately 1,700 police officers and supervisors who have full police status in New York and New Jersey.[50]

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